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The Slovaks are descendants of a Slavic people who settled near the Danube between 400 and 500 AD.

Slovakia existed as part of Hungary from the beginning of the 10th century until 1918, when it united with the Czech lands of Bohemia and Moravia, in addition to a small part of Silesia, to form Czechoslovakia.

In 1939, Slovakia declared its independence, but in 1945 it was reunited with the rest of Czechoslovakia. From 1948 until 1989, Czechoslovakia was under the Communist rule. In 1968, popular discontent was suppressed by Soviet troops assisted by other Communist countries of Eastern Europe.

In 1989, due to revolts in the country, the Communist government resigned. The country's first multiparty elections were held in June 1990. In 1993, the country was dissolved, and Slovakia and the Czech Republic became independent.

A new Constitution of Slovakia was adopted in 1992 and went into effect in January 1993. The first parliamentary elections of independent Slovakia were held in 1994.