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The history of Romania dates back to the times when it was known as Dacia and conquered by the Roman Empire between 101 and 106 AD. For the next thousand years, the Daco-Roman people were subjected to successive invasions by the Huns, Avars, Slavs, and Bulgars. From mid 13th to 19th century, the country existed as the separate principalities of Walachia and Moldavia under the successive Hungarian, Polish, Ottoman and Russian rule.

The modern country of Romania was created in 1859, when Moldavia and Walachia were united. It be came fully independent in 1878. Romania was a kingdom from 1881 to 1947. In 1948, the People's Republic of Romania was proclaimed with the ruling Communist party.

In the 1960s, Romania began to distance itself from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and develop its own domestic and foreign policies. In 1989, Romanians revolted against the repressive dictatorship of Nicolae Ceausescu, and a non-communist government was installed.

The first free multiparty elections took place in 1990. A new democratic Constitution was adopted in 1991.