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During the period of Roman rule, Luxembourg was initially an integral part of the province of Belgica Prima and later on was included in the kingdom of Austrasia, which was Frankish, and soon after, of Charlemagne's empire. Count Conrad, founder of the house of Luxembourg, came into power in 1060. From the 14th to the 15th century, the house of Luxemburg gave the Holy Roman Empire four of its rulers before the Habsburg dynasty took over. In the succeeding centuries, Luxembourg was alternately subjugated by Spain and Austria. As the Napoleonic Wars came to a close in 1815, the Congress of Vienna declared Luxembourg as a grand duchy and appointed William I of the Netherlands to be its ruler. In 1830, a revolt sparked led by the Belgian provinces and a year later, Belgium became an autonomous kingdom while Luxembourg remained as only a part of it. By 1839, Luxembourg’s western territory was surrendered to Belgium and the rest was established as an independent state.

In August 1914, German military forces took over the Grand Duchy and occupied the country from the onset up to the end of the World War I. In 1920, Luxembourg became part of the League of Nations.

During the Second World War, the Germans invaded Luxembourg yet again. Consequently, Charlotte, the reigning sovereign of that time, went to London and founded a government-in-exile. In 1942, Germany declared Luxembourg as a member of the Third Reich. Two years later, the country’s allied military forces liberated Luxembourg and civilian control was re-established. In 1945, Luxembourg became an official member of the United Nations.