Greece

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History

History

Greece is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. The first signs of inhabitance were the Cycladic, Minoan and Mycenaean maritime civilisations that lived and ruled during the Bronze Age (3000-1200 BC). However, these collapsed by the 11th century BC and a 'dark age' followed. By 800 BC, there was a cultural and military revival and city-states like Athens and Sparta developped. The classical (or golden) age of Greece started soon after and gave rise to many of the world’s cultural emblems before ending with the Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 AD) in which the Athenians were vanquished by the Spartans.

Alexander the Great, who marched into Asia Minor, Egypt, Persia and parts of what are now Afghanistan and India, ushered in the Macedonian empire. It ruled for three dynasties and is known as the Hellenistic period. During this time, Greek ideas and culture was amalgamated with other proud ancient cultures and a new tradition was created.

The powerful Roman empire turned its sights on Greece around 205 BC and over the next few centuries, the country came under the Romans, the illustrious Byzantine Empire, and the Ottoman Turks. All these influences combined to create a unique culture. A cultural revival in the late 18th century precipitated the War of Independence in 1821-29 but it was only in 1827, when Russia, France and Britain intervened that Greece became independent.

During WWI, Greek troops fought on the Allied side. Refugees from the Turkish territory of Smyrna weakened Greece's economy. In 1936 General Metaxas was appointed as prime minister by the king and quickly established a fascist dictatorship. Although Metaxas had created a Greek version of the Third Reich, he was opposed to German or Italian domination and refused to allow Italian troops to traverse Greece in 1940. Despite Allied help, Greece fell to Germany in 1941. The destruction and economic problems led to a civil war that lasted until 1949.

With economic help from America, Greece recovered after this and the royalists established an anticommunist government and implemented the Certificate of Political Reliability, which remained valid until 1962. Fearing a resurgence of the left, a group of army colonels (military junta) staged a coup d'etat in 1967. The junta distinguished itself by inflicting appalling brutality, repression and political incompetence upon the people.

In 1981 Greece entered the European Community (now the EU), and Andreas Papandreou's socialist party (PASOK) won elections. PASOK promised removal of US air bases and withdrawal from NATO, but these promises were never fulfilled. Women's issues fared better, with the abolition of the dowry system and legalization of abortion. Kostas Simitis was appointed prime minister in early 1996 when it became clear that Papandreou's time was almost over. Greece adopted the Euro currency in 2002. In 2004 the country hosted the Olympic Games and in 2005.
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Source: http://www.spainexchange.com/guide/GR-history.htm